Criminology is a study of crime including causes, the effects of law enforcement and different methods of prevention. There have been many theories of criminology in the past years some that are still relevant today.
The term criminology was created by an Italian Law professor Raffaele Garofalo in 1885 as “criminologia” in later years French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the French word “criminologie”.
Criminologist also have to investigate how race, ethnicity, education and socioeconomic status can influence crime incidence. They also study how individuals react to certain kinds of crime with the overall effect of crime on culture as a whole.
Criminologists work in close collaboration with the local law enforcement to profile killers, and they teach the local law enforcement how to spot the signs of a serial killer. There has been a very high rate of closed cases due to the knowledge and work done by criminologists.
Criminologist work close with prisons and lawyers they sometimes have to assess a criminal to see if they are mentally fit to stand trial or mentally insane for the trail, they also get information from the prisoner of how and why a certain crime has been committed.
In the early 19th century some criminologists called themselves the positivist, they believed that the punishment should fit the criminal and not the crime. Cesare Lombroso was the leader of the positivist theory. He thought that criminals are born and not made, I know he was a very clever man with lots of Ph.D.’s but how can you believe that a sweet innocent baby can be born evil, well he has the science to back him up as he also had a criminology school.
There are a few sub-subjects that I will discuss below:
Crime Prevention: There is a few criminologist that is at the forefront of working to prevent crime, Gottfredson, Mckenzie, Eck, Farrington, Sherman, and Waller. These criminologists work with the World Health Organization, United Stated National Research Council and the Uk Audit Commission they analyze and research what lowers rates of interpersonal crime. They tackle the risked factors that cause crime and the standard ways of communities ways of responding to crime. They are the backbone of the research of crime prevention because of them we can better our communities and ways to make sure we live in a crime free world as best as possible. To succeed they need to establish a coalition of key agencies such as schools, jobs, social services, housing and law enforcement around a diagnosis.
Victimology: It is a study of victimization between victims and offenders and also the interactions with the criminal justice system. Here we deal with emotions and criminologist need to be neutral as best as they can to be able to do their job in the best possible way, they need to find common ground between all parties which is sometimes very hard to do. Victimology is not just about the crimes but also about human rights violations. Victims of white collar crime are often denied their status as victims of the concept Croall 2001 and is still a controversial topic within women studies. A victim impact panel is formed in which crime victims meet with the convict about how the crime impacted them in the hopes of rehabilitation.
Penology: Francis Lieber coined this term, and this deals with the philosophy and practice in societies in attempts to repress criminal activity and satisfy the public through treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offenses. This is about the treatment of prisoners after they are convicted and ensuring that they can also be rehabilitated and treated with respect as people. Sometimes we forget that they are humans that made a mistake in life and just because they are paying for their crime they still deserve human rights and to make a penance. They incorporated the ideas of criminologist Berraria that he made non-lethal punishment more socially acceptable.
The world cannot be without criminologists, and the need is greater than ever. The world needs to recognize them more for the great job they do in catching the most prolific serial killers and ensure that they not only get their proper trail but also the convicted killer have a chance to better themselves. Although they cannot be emotionally involved with the victims, they have compassion and brotherly love towards the victim and convicted. They deal with people when they are at their most vulnerable, and therefore their client trust them completely.
I think you will find the following page useful if you ever wondered what criminologists do.
My sources are the following: